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Artificial Intelligence in Software and Game Development: Opportunities, Risks and Legal Challenges

AI in software and game development: potential and pitfalls

The use of artificial intelligence (AI) in software and game development offers enormous potential. Automation and data-driven decisions can optimize development processes and create personalized user experiences. Nevertheless, the use of AI also entails risks. Unpredictable or difficult-to-understand decisions by AI systems can lead to technical errors or undesirable game experiences. In addition, there is a risk that AI-assisted tools will introduce undetected security holes or vulnerabilities into the code they create.

AI’s ability to recognize patterns in large amounts of data can revolutionize game development by, for example, analyzing player feedback and automatically translating it into improvements. But this data-driven approach can also lead to unexpected results if the data is flawed, incomplete, or biased. In addition, the complexity and opacity of AI systems, often referred to as the “black box” problem, can make it difficult to determine and fix the exact causes of such failures.

Legal issues around AI in software and game development

The case law around AI in software and game development is still largely unexplored and presents many legal challenges. One area of particular importance is copyright. When an AI creates software or game content, who holds the rights to those works? In many jurisdictions, copyright is granted to the human creator, but what happens when AI is the “creator”? This raises complex questions regarding the copyright status of AI-generated works.

Another important aspect is data protection. AI systems are often data-driven, and many applications require user data processing. This may raise legal issues, particularly with regard to compliance with data protection laws such as the EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR).

Using player feedback to improve games through AI presents another legal challenge. Before such data can be used, consent must be obtained from the users who provided the feedback. This is particularly important in view of the GDPR, which imposes strict requirements on the collection and use of personal data. Therefore, developers and publishers must be careful to ensure that their terms of use and privacy policies are clear and transparent, and obtain users’ consent to use their feedback in a legally compliant manner.

Another point to consider is whether and to what extent players, by providing feedback, might acquire rights to the resulting customizations. This could lead to complex copyright issues in certain jurisdictions. To avoid such problems, developers and publishers should ensure that their terms of use and contracts make clear that any feedback provided by players does not give rise to any copyright claims or other rights in the resulting customizations.

Another problem that arises from the use of AI in software development concerns the comprehensibility of the code produced by the AI. Human programmers may have difficulty understanding and reviewing code generated by an AI. This can lead to technical and legal problems, especially when it comes to fulfilling obligations under game publishing agreements. For example, publishers might require a guarantee that the code is free of bugs or meets certain standards. However, if the code was created by an AI and cannot be fully understood and verified by human programmers, this could call such guarantees into question and lead to liability issues. Therefore, it is important that developers and publishers are aware of these issues and make appropriate provisions in their contracts.

AI Testing in Software and Game Development: Possibilities and Legal Requirements

Using AI to test software and games is another exciting application area. AI can be used to automate repetitive testing processes and even to create test scenarios beyond the capabilities of human testers. However, this can also raise legal issues, such as liability for errors missed by AI or compliance with standards and best practices in software testing.

Finally, I, attorney Marian Härtel, as a specialist in IT and games law, would like to emphasize that I am very excited about the possibilities that AI offers in software and game development. At the same time, however, I would like to warn that the legal challenges associated with the use of AI should not be underestimated. It is important that we, as a legal community, carefully consider these issues and create the right framework to reap the benefits of AI while minimizing potential risks.

Another legal aspect that requires careful consideration is the issue of liability. Who is responsible if an AI makes a mistake or causes damage? Is it the AI developer, the user, or maybe even the AI itself? These are complex issues that still need to be addressed, especially as AI systems become more autonomous and make decisions that can have far-reaching implications.

Last but not least, there are also ethical issues related to the use of AI in software and game development. AI can be used to manipulate or monitor user behavior, which can raise privacy concerns. Similarly, AI systems can reinforce bias or discrimination when trained on flawed or biased data. Therefore, it is critical to incorporate ethical considerations into the development process and ensure that AI systems are used in a way that respects the rights and freedoms of users.

The development of AI systems and the integration of this technology into software and games is an exciting and dynamic area. AI’s ability to automate processes and make data-driven decisions has the potential to fundamentally change the way we develop and experience software and games. However, it is important that we do not lose sight of the technical and legal challenges that these developments bring.

It is therefore critical that developers, lawyers, and regulators work together to create a legal framework that both promotes innovation and prevents potential risks and abuses. We need to keep an equal eye on the technical possibilities and the legal challenges to ensure that AI is used in a way that is both beneficial and legally and ethically defensible.

As an IT and games lawyer, I am very excited about the exciting possibilities AI offers for software and game development. At the same time, however, I caution against underestimating the legal challenges associated with the use of AI. It is an exciting time to be in, and I look forward to doing my part to ensure that these new technologies are used in a responsible and legally sound manner.


The integration of artificial intelligence in software and game development offers enormous potential for innovation, but also poses a number of technical and legal challenges. The legal issues arising from the use of AI are complex and require careful consideration and adaptation of existing legal frameworks. In particular, aspects of copyright, data protection and contract design play a central role. Collaboration among developers, lawyers, and regulators is critical to creating a legal framework that fosters innovation while minimizing risk. Ultimately, it is imperative that we harness the benefits of AI while actively and responsibly addressing the challenges it presents.

Marian Härtel

Marian Härtel

Marian Härtel is a lawyer and entrepreneur specializing in copyright law, competition law and IT/IP law, with a focus on games, esports, media and blockchain.


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