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Why NDAs are often considered "toothless tigers

This post is also available in: Deutsch


I encounter a variety of contracts every day in my practice as an attorney and business consultant, and one of the most commonly used documents is the Non-Disclosure Agreement (NDA), also known as a non-disclosure agreement. At first glance, an NDA seems like a simple and effective way to protect confidential information. But is that really the case? I have found that many people, including experienced business people, often have an exaggerated idea of the protective power of an NDA. In this article, I would like to share my thoughts on why NDAs can be considered “toothless tigers” in many cases.

What is an NDA?

An NDA is a legal contract that specifies the terms for handling confidential information between two or more parties. The idea is simple: you share important information only with people who have contractually agreed not to share it. Sounds logical, doesn’t it? But this is where the problems begin. An NDA is only as good as its enforceability, and that’s where the difficulties start. I have seen many cases in my career where an NDA was more of a placebo than a true protection.

Why “toothless”?

Difficult evidence

In my experience, one of the biggest obstacles to enforcing an NDA is evidence. Imagine you have a great business idea and share it with a potential partner under an NDA. A few months later, you see a very similar idea on the market. Is this coincidence or theft? It is incredibly difficult to concretely prove that the other party actually used your information. Even if you have evidence, it has to hold up in court, which is another challenge.

Cost and time

Another problem I see time and time again is the financial and time commitment involved in enforcing an NDA. Legal proceedings are expensive and can take years. During this time, your business could suffer serious damage. I have advised clients who ultimately decided not to sue simply because the process would be too lengthy and costly.

Reputational risk

The risk to one’s reputation is another factor I always take into account when considering an NDA. Public litigation can damage the image of both parties. In this day and age of social media, such a case can quickly go viral and cause long-term damage. Therefore, I often advise caution before taking the legal route.

Unclear formulations

I can’t stress enough how important it is to have a well-written NDA. An unclearly worded contract can do more harm than good. I have seen contracts that had so many loopholes and ambiguities that they were practically useless. An NDA should be precise and unambiguous in order to be truly protective.

What is the alternative?

There is no one-size-fits-all solution, but I always recommend using a wide range of protection mechanisms. This includes the careful selection of business partners, the use of technical protection measures such as encryption, and of course clear contractual regulations that go beyond the NDA. I often advise my clients not to rely on the NDA alone, but to develop a comprehensive security concept.


An NDA can be a useful first line of defense, but it is far from the only one. I have seen in my years of practice that the term “toothless tiger” is often accurate. It is important to be aware of the limitations of this tool and act accordingly. An NDA should be part of a comprehensive strategy, not the entire strategy. And as with any contract, a piece of paper can only do so much; the key is in the relationship between the parties.

Marian Härtel

Marian Härtel

Marian Härtel is a lawyer and entrepreneur specializing in copyright law, competition law and IT/IP law, with a focus on games, esports, media and blockchain.


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